By Catharine Paddock PhD The ancestors of Native American populations from the tip of Chile in the south to Canada in the north, migrated from Asia in at least three waves, according to a new international study published online in Nature this week that involved over 60 investigators in 11 countries in the Americas, plus four in Europe, and Russia. In what they describe as the most comprehensive survey of genetic diversity in Native Americans so far, the researchers studied variation in Native American DNA sequences.
Each group was distinct with its own language and customs. Several Indian groups often shared a single culture, the same worldview, language, religion, food, clothes and architecture of buildings.
The cultural groups of Indian people depended on the same natural resources and used them in a similar way.
For instance, the Plains Indians, constituting distinct cultural group, lived in the area of Great Plains. The most significant tribes of this culture include Cheyenne, Dakota, Sioux and Comanche.
The Plains Indians One of the most distinct features of the Plains Indians is great importance of the buffalo. This animal was the essential natural resource. The Plains Indians were traditionally hunters.
They hunted many types of animals, but buffalo was the one which provided them with all essential elements of their life: Therefore, Plains strictly followed the migration of buffalo, such constant movement required very mobile form of the shelter.
Such kind of home was called the tepee.
The tepee was made by tying the long poles and covering them with the hide of buffalo. The meet of the buffalo was used for food. The fresh meat was either roasted on fire or boiled. Also, a sort of sausage and dry meat was made. The skin of the buffalo was used to make clothes and shelter.
Thus, no part of this animal was wasted. Horns were turned into cups, spoons or toys. Bones were generally used as weapons or tools. The stomach was cleaned and then used to carry water. It should be nevertheless noticed that Plains Indians, being hunters, only killed what was needed to survive and never killed more then necessary.
Only with the appearance of the white man, the slaughter of the buffalo began. The plains Indians believed in numerous gods. They thought that the gods showed themselves in the form of the moon, stars, sun, and anything that was strange or possessed great power, such as person, animal or even stone with odd shape.
Indians received their power from the gods by visions. Those who saw visions were considered medicine men. They were believed to see future and heal people from the diseases. One of the ceremonies of the Plains Indians is powwow.
It is a celebration of prayer to the Great Spirit. Another important ceremony was called the Sun Dance. Indians believed that such dances would help return their land.
The Southwest Indians Merwyn S. Garbarino and Robert F. Sasso in Native American Heritage use culture areas distinction approach in comparing the tribes belonging to different cultures. This approach, though somewhat generalized, may prove fairly reasonable on the example of comparing the cultures of Plains Indians to those of Southwest group.
This culture is very different from the Plains culture largely due to the climate of the territory the tribes inhabited.
The climate of the Southwest region is very dry. A large part of the territory is desert. Therefore, water was a precious resource and Indians had strict rules as to using water.
Also, the desert was very purely inhabited with animals. Anasazi Indians, for instance, built their homes in the sides of the canyons, or mesas.Alphabetic listing of Native American Indian tribes of South, Central, and North America, with links to information about each Indian tribe and its native language.
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Listen to an interview with Louise Erdrich, with Michael Krasny of Forum. Indians rejected monetary compensation from the claims 3.
Opposed termination and stated that it was the ancestral land and that they cant be kicked off without consent. By contrast, in , though Native Americans accounted for about 15 per cent of the inhabitants in the territory that would later become the United States, they constituted a much smaller fraction of the residents in the 16 states that then made up the union.
George Washington’s ‘Tortuous’ Relationship with Native Americans The First President Offered Indians a Place in American Society—or Bloodshed If They Refused The “Point of View” sculpture by James A.
West in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, depicts George Washington and the Seneca leader Guyasuta.