Three major theoretical perspectives in sociology

Consequently, several different theoretical approaches to the study of development and the life course have been proposed and advocated. The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences and similarities between these three broad approaches. However, this exposition would be incomplete without a discussion of the concept of world views Kuhn, ; Pepper, An individual's theoretical position is affected by their world views.

Three major theoretical perspectives in sociology

History of sociology The field of sociology itself—and sociological theory by extension—is relatively new. Both date back to the 18th and 19th centuries.

The drastic social changes of that period, such as industrializationurbanizationand the rise of democratic states caused particularly Western thinkers to become aware of society.

The oldest sociological theories deal with broad historical processes relating to these changes. Since then, sociological theories have come to encompass most aspects of societyincluding communitiesorganizations and relationships.

Sociological theory attempts to answer the following three questions: In the myriad attempts to answer these questions, three predominately theoretical i. These problems are largely inherited from the classical theoretical traditions.

The consensus on the central theoretical problems is: The first deals with knowledge, the second with agency, and the last with time. Lastly, sociological theory often grapples with the problem of integrating or transcending the divide between micro, meso and macro-scale social phenomena, which is a subset of all three central problems.

These problems are not altogether empirical problems, rather they are epistemological: Objectivity and subjectivity[ edit ] Main articles: Objectivity scienceObjectivity philosophyand Subjectivity The problem of subjectivity and objectivity can be divided into a concern over the general possibilities of social actions, and, on the other hand the specific problem of social scientific knowledge.

In the former, the subjective is often equated though not necessarily with the individual, and the individual's intentions and interpretations of the objective.

The objective is often considered any public or external action or outcome, on up to society writ large. A primary question for social theorists, is how knowledge reproduces along the chain of subjective-objective-subjective, that is to say: While, historically, qualitative methods have attempted to tease out subjective interpretations, quantitative survey methods also attempt to capture individual subjectivities.

Also, some qualitative methods take a radical approach to objective description in situ.

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The latter concern with scientific knowledge results from the fact that a sociologist is part of the very object they seek to explain. Bourdieu puts this problem rather succinctly: How can the sociologist effect in practice this radical doubting which is indispensable for bracketing all the presuppositions inherent in the fact that she is a social being, that she is therefore socialized and led to feel "like a fish in water" within that social world whose structures she has internalized?

How can she prevent the social world itself from carrying out the construction of the object, in a sense, through her, through these unself-conscious operations or operations unaware of themselves of which she is the apparent subject — Pierre Bourdieu, "The Problem of Reflexive Sociology" in An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology [8] Structure and agency[ edit ] Main article: Structure and agency Structure and agency, sometimes referred to as determinism versus voluntarism, [9] form an enduring ontological debate in social theory: Discussions over the primacy of either structure and agency relate to the core of sociological epistemology "What is the social world made of?

Three major theoretical perspectives in sociology

Synchrony and diachrony[ edit ] Synchrony and diachrony, or statics and dynamics, within social theory are terms that refer to a distinction emerging out of the work of Levi-Strauss who inherited it from the linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure.Aug 10,  · The three social theoretical perspectives concerning education are Functionalism, Conflict Theory, and the Interpretivist Approach.

For this blog post I will discuss the “Education and Societal Inequality: Race, Gender, Class, and Ethnicity” and “Education as Cultural Transmission” themes to illustrate and compare the three social theoretical perspectives concerning education and how.


Theoretical perspectives. The term perspective itself attains with massive variation in ideologies of a different person.

And as sociology is a combination of many sciences, also known as Queen of sciences has, even more, vast area when it comes with dealing Perspective of Sociology. Sociologists employ three major theoretical perspectives in sociology today. They are the structural-functionalist perspective, the conflict perspective, and the symbolic interactionism.

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The structural-functionalist perspective is done at a macro level and its focus is . Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Page 3 Contents Page No.

The three major functions of theory are description, explanation and prediction. Nature and Characteristics of Theory theoretical statements are grouped together, they constitute a theoretical format. Concepts. Question Three Sociological Perspectives Compare the differences among the three major theoretical perspectives in sociology (structural-functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism).

Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology By Adilene Benavidez Sociology B1 CRN# Prof. John Carpenter September 24, Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Sociologist view society in three major theories: Structural Functionalism, Conflict Theory, and Symbolic Interactions.

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